Female Gut, Fiber, Autoimmune: Do Women Need More Fiber Than Men?

A study on the effects of prebiotics on satiety and hunger came across my radar the other day. It had an interesting finding — that increased fiber had opposite satiety effects in men and women:

Over the remainder of the day, the high dose of scFOS reduced food intake in women, but increased food intake in men, suggesting a gender difference in the longer-term response.

I filed it away as interesting. Do women somehow extract more energy from fiber than men? Maybe.

But then, today, I came across a piece of info that I’m familiar with, but never really connected to anything: gender differences in colonic transit time. In short, it’s been found that women generally have a markedly longer colonic transit time. Average transit time for men: 33 hours. Average transit time for women? 47 hours.

That’s quite a difference. This study showed that when men and women are placed on an identical diet, women have lower stool weight and longer transit time. This study also confirmed longer transit time in women. And this study showed that the gender/transit time discrepancy was due to colonic transit time, and also that menstrual cycle was not the reason for the discrepancy (as was previously thought).

As we all know by now, the colon is where all the microbiota and fermentation action is. If we were to draw some kind of hypothesis from this, this one would be the most obvious: perhaps women derive more energy from fiber. The longer fiber remains in the colon, the longer the microbiota have to break it down, and thus produce more short-chain fatty acids. And if women do indeed derive more energy from fiber, then, just maybe, there’s a reason women might be built to do that? Do women need to support a larger/more diverse gut microbe community?

If that’s the case, we might observe something indicating increased fiber preference from females in the anthropological record. Do we?

We’ve talked about the Hadza quite a bit here — they are an African tribe and one of the last remaining true hunter-gatherer groups in the world. And they are the major subject of inquiry by the American Gut project. We’re going to learn a lot about the human microbiome through that work.

A lot of study has been done into the foraging and food preferences of the Hadza. Their diet is highly seasonal, and relies on a handful of staples whose availability changes season to season. We’ve discussed previously their strong reliance and preference for honey. Honey is the Hadza’s top-ranked food, and in some months out of the year, it accounts for up to 70% of their energy intake. The reason for honey being their top preference is quite clear: it is the most energy dense food in the world. As such, the Hadza’s second-ranked food is meat. Third is baobab fruit. Fourth is berries.

If we’re just talking about men, that is.

One of the most fascinating things about Hadza food preference research is the fact that women rank berries above meat. For women, berries are the second-ranked food. Not only that, but meat ranks fourth — after baobab fruit. That seems significant. Berries and baobab are not very energy dense — they are largely composed of dietary fiber. It seems that, after honey, men continue to prefer energy density, while women shift to a preference for fiber.

What’s more, the overall eating pattern of Hadza women shows that while men tend to consume infrequent but high energy foods, women eat far more frequently than men, and are consuming “low quality” (read: lower energy density, higher fiber) foods throughout the day. To me, that sounds like a diet geared toward deriving energy from a continuous, steady fermentation of fiber from colonic microbiota. 

Hadza men, on the other hand, are largely tasked with the job of hunting game — leading to an obvious situation in which they kill, prepare, and consume meat (and are the exclusive consumers of organ meat) much more often. Does this point to an evolved gender dimorphism, in which women have a greater capacity for energy harvest from fiber, an enhanced gut microbiota, and a greater need for fiber?

And lastly, this all seems to comport with studies of gender food preferences in modern, Western populations: research has shown that men have a greater preference for meat, while women have a greater preference for fruit and vegetables. On their own, these studies might not exactly be perfect, given the role of culture and other factors, but the fact that they line up with what we find in a non-industrialized, hunter-gatherer population is relevant, I think.

So that’s all pretty fascinating. And adds quite a bit of fuel to this women/fiber hypothesis fire.

Now I’ll go ahead and heap another log. A pretty speculative one.

As you should know by now, a major area of interest for this blog is the role that the human microbiome might play in chronic disease. And there’s a pretty specific class of chronic disease that is particularly under the microscope. Given that we know what an important role microbiota play in our immune system — they are major regulators of immune activity, and about 70% of our immune system is considered to be in our gastrointestinal system — there’s no wonder that autoimmune diseases are at the top of the list when looking at the microbiome and human disease.

Now, let’s see. If women have a greater need for dietary, fermentable, prebiotic, gut bacteria-feeding fiber, would it perhaps stand to reason that they might suffer disproportionately from a modern Western diet devoid of that? Ummm:

Taken together, autoimmune diseases strike women three times more than men. Some diseases have an even higher incidence in women.


The fact that women have enhanced immune systems compared to men increases women’s resistance to many types of infection, but also makes them more susceptible to ADs.

All very interesting.

— Heisenbug


86 thoughts on “Female Gut, Fiber, Autoimmune: Do Women Need More Fiber Than Men?

  1. In regards to autoimmune disease prevalence in females, there’s also the hypothesis that females are X chromosome chimeras.

  2. This study gets paraded around a lot by the RS naysayers as well:


    “In women, there was no difference among the treatments. These results suggest that consumption of 15–30 g/d of HAM-RS2 improves [insulin sensitivity] in men. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanisms that might account for the treatment × sex interaction observed.”

    • Tatertot, maybe it’s because feces just stay in the gut for longer and there’s risk with longer exposure to breakdown products of gram negative bacteria. For which maybe women have a usual natural tendency to prefer vegetation in the diet compared to men. Who knows. Maybe more firmicutes is better than more bacteroides.

    • If women have a higher prebiotic requirement, it’s possible that the men had kept some of the good guys alive and the women had lost their beneficial bacteria on a Western diet. In that case, the RS would have only helped the men. The women would have needed probiotics.

  3. The main reason for choosing Hadza for study, is that they are the closest proxy to an evolutionary diet we know of. They are part of the L1 and L2 mitochondrial branches, prior to the recent out of Africa L3 branch. Their foraging range includes Olduvai Gorge and they are within trekking distance of the Gate of Grief etc etc. Documentation of their existence from the early 20th century also shows that the “pure” HG Hadza, today, are eating similar to times prior to development around their foraging range. Compare this to the “paelo” inuit society which is only a few thousand years old (and isn’t paleolithic), as an example.There is no comparison (from an evolutionary perspective).

    Hadza women have a few other interesting traits – they “value” men based on their hunting ability. That is to say, men that are rated the best “hunters” have more children, more affairs, and typically “marry” more times than lesser rated men. However, “hunting” is often defined, by the women, by who brings back the most honey, rather than just meat. Honey gathering is also related to baobab consumption, as the baobab tree is a key honey source as well. The peak baobab periods often are at the start and end of the wet season, when honey checking is at peaks. So, guys, if you give your lady lots of honey and pectin, she will think highly of you from an evolutionary perspective – leave the meat and organs for bbq with the boys.

    Additionally, Hadza women often start their day by digging tubers, and they do this consistently, year round. Describing tubers as “fallback food”, within the Hadza diet – is a misnomer. Tubers are the most consistent (least variable) year-round food source for Hadza women, and Hadza tubers are typically 40-70% RS.

    • @ Cao Cao: “The main reason for choosing Hadza for study, is that they are the closest proxy to an evolutionary diet we know of.”

      The problem I see here is that these groups like Hadza or Australian aboriginals differ from us – and our ancestors. Take IQ as an example – the remaining souther hunter-gatherers are like within 55 – 70 in this parameter (Bushmen, Australian Aboriginals etc.). Much different brains than moderns in civilized parts of the world.

      Looks like everyone intelligent moved to agriculture or sheppardism if conditions allowed and time came (the thing was invented). Normal IQ populations (IQ of around 90) like, Inuit, Amazonian tribes) stayed hunter-gatherer only when the conditions prevented that – like extreme climate – like snowland in case of Inuit, or rainforest for Amazonians; or when it was more profitable to do so (Praire Native Americans, Siberian People etc.).

      And it’s obvious that most people’s ancestors were closer to the latter group than the former. Like those big-brained Cro-Magnions, painting in caves and using calendars.


      • By whose standard are the IQ levels set? Who’s to say they may be the intelligent ones and we the dummies?

      • “And that the butyrate levels of Hadza were lower than that of Italians.”

        It looked to me like the butyrate levels of the Hadza were much higher than the Italians, but the acetate was even higher, giving the Hadza a lower percentage of butyrate, but higher concentration, if that makes sense.

      • “It looked to me like the butyrate levels of the Hadza were much higher than the Italians, but the acetate was even higher, giving the Hadza a lower percentage of butyrate, but higher concentration, if that makes sense.”

        When I calculate the averages of the actual butyrate concentrations from Hadza and Italians from supplementary table 6 a and b from
        I get an average of 0.6 micromol/g for Hadza and 0.68 micromol/g for Italians. I guess there is no significant difference – there is a huge variation.

  4. I have read several times that women suffer more from constipation than men. If they tend to eat more vegetables i.e. plant fiber then my thinking would be that women have better gut flora and have LESS constipation. Since I have suffered from constipation for over 40 years, would mean I am not a typical female!! 😉
    But I think that the environment in which a person grew up and what they ate during the decades influence the gut flora. Think about the wars through the ages and what that did for food supplies, what effect that had on our constitution.

    • Remember, we aren’t saying women necessarily GET more plants/fiber, just that perhaps they NEED more plants/fiber. Therefore a Western diet that is low in fiber would impact women more than men. Which would be in keeping with what you say about constipation.

  5. One of the symptoms of ulcerative colitis, is obviously very rapid transit time when in a flare. Now I am on my way out of my first flare and transit time has increasing more toward my normal, but still, I suspect some species will remain at a disadvantage because of the quicker than average transit time.
    I have always had fairly quick transit time before i had UC and I wonder if that might have predisposed me to developing the disease by impacting on gut flora. Perhaps even eating a good diet isn’t enough if it isn’t hanging around in the colon long enough for the good bacteria to use it. It might mean that some of us with quick transit time have to find ways to slow it down, or consume an even better diet to compensate.

    • Joel, I think that’s a good point. Sounds logical, if you think about it. I still have vivid memories of catching a severe dose of diarrhea in Mexico. It ended up coming out faster at the bottom end than I could throw in at the top end. It was water. It must have played havoc with my gut flora, and at the time, no one paid much attention to it. So I never took a course of probiotics to replenish my gut flora.

      Have you figured out yet what the best foods to eat are for you (might not work for someone else) ??

    • Hi, Have you tried staying away from all gluten containing foods, some people have been healed leaving this food out of their diet. I know a young woman who was vomiting and had digestive upset for years and she finally stopped gluten and her vomiting and digestive problems all cleared up. But she is so sensitive she will not use a toaster or cook in a pan that has had a gluten containing food. Gluten containing foods are wheat, barley, rye, oats and all bread or pasta. It is added to a lot of processed foods too so you must read labels carefully. It would be worth a try to heal. http://www.wheatbellyblog.com/2013/03/ulcerative-colitis-tamed/

      • Thanks for the suggestion. I had not eaten any gluten, or other grains except oats (which themselves don’t contain gluten, but which can get small amounts of contamination), for the four months leading up to my symptoms starting seriously and subsequently getting diagnosed. I ate gluten before that all my life, so it could have been a factor in developing the disease. I think the main thing that triggered it though was the killing off of my gut flora. Before I gave up gluten i had a gut test that showed dysbiosis already and subsequently took abx to treat an infection which would have made it even worse and that’s when I got the UC badly and then diagnosed. I’m now working on fixing my gut flora and things are gradually improving.

  6. Longer transit time would probably mean that women are more exposed to WHATEVER toxins that are in the gut/colon. Endotoxins, excess estrogens, chemichals… I think that could be enough to mess with the immune system.

  7. I would imagine most western women have seriously mucked with their gut flora no only by eating the usual low fermentable fibre diet but also by following a never ending series of weird weight loss diets.Does anyone know what the fibre content of those diet shakes is?

  8. From the time I eat something identifiable (a green drink, corn or beets) until it appears in my stool is 12 to 14 hours. Is there anything a person can do to increase transit time or is it just the way a body works and can’t be changed?

    • I’ve often wondered about this, too. I kind of think that maybe just some components of a meal give the impression of rapid transit. TMI ALERT! I know a meal of corn on the cob at dinner will be revealed 12 hours later, same as fresh beets. But, I wonder if it’s just the indigestible nature of these foods that somehow get it shuffled to the front of the line quicker.

      Then again, I know people who swear they only poop once or twice a week.


      “Normal Results:
      The bowel transit time varies even in the same person. The first of the color should appear in the stool about 12 – 14 hours after it is taken. The last of the color will appear within 36 – 48 hours.

      Abnormal Results:
      If the transit time is 72 hours or more, you may have slowed bowel function.”

      • Using Dr. BG’s protocol along with a good amount of fibrous foods have increased my transit time to – I guess – 48 hours, since I’m going now every other day. I used to be every other week…. it was bad. The in-between day is usually one of bloat and gastritis time feeling – so I wonder if every other day is within the range of normal.

      • Debbie – Makes sense. I read a paper where they measured the transit time and waves of peristalsis in mice, then killed off all the gut microbes. Afterwards, the waves of peristalsis were almost non-existent and transit time was remarkably longer.

        The thought was that gut bugs were controlling the waves of peristalsis to some degree and with no gut bugs, the body slowed the whole system down to absorb nutrients that would normally be liberated by gut bugs. Interesting thought.

        My thought on your transit time is that the unhealthier the gut, the slower it will be. I was reading an article on misuse of laxatives, and the author said that everyone should have a bowel movement every 1-3 days. I think optimal is 1 a day or more. We’ve all trained ourselves to hold it in for convenience, but how often to babies poop? 3-4 times a day? I remember spending a LOT of money on diapers for our son.

        Since getting on the RS train, I can say #2’s have been daily, perfect, and uneventful. No sitting and reading the whole paper, don’t even have time to read anything, anymore…you should see the stack of magazines growing on bathroom magazine rack. Also hardly need any TP. OK, now were well into TMI territory! But, seriously, everyone owes it to themselves to have good bowel movenments. No one should be content with constipation or diarrhea as a normal mode.

    • too bad GTR, you inherited your mother’s chimplike X chromosome.

      Chimps have 48 chromosomes. We have 46. The number 2 chromosome is a Robertsonian translocation. Maybe that has more to do with things than the X chromosome.

  9. Thanks to the rapid changes in Y chromosome men are less related to chimps than women. I don’t know how it relates to the gut, but obviously chimps are more plant eaters, relaying on fermentation than humans are.


    But it may be eaerlier than that – even in chimps meat hunting and eating is mostly done by males.


    “In chimpanzees, hunting and meat-eating is a man’s business […] as now compared stable isotope data of wild chimpanzee hair keratin and bone collagen with behavioural observations and found that, in chimpanzees, hunting and meat-eating is male-dominated”

    By the way – human males are apparently closer to chimp males than to human females; same with the opposite sex? At least if counted by raw numbers of differences, rather than differences weighted by the importance or whatever.


    “If the 98.7% number for chimp-human similarity is right, then by this measure, men and women are less alike than are female chimps and women.”

    And another interesting facts is that paleolithic people where much more strong and robust, thus more masculine than moderns – we are quite neotenous, proably due to domestication generally, and in case of women – sexual preferences for young-looking ones. This holds true for both men and women; so it means than ancien women were more masculine-like than modern ones.

    Exaple Cromagnions reconstructions

    In middle ages women tended to still keep their more masculine apperarance than today:


    “Viking women had masculine faces
    The skeletons reveal another difference between us and the Vikings: men’s and women’s faces were more similar in appearance in the Viking Age than they are today.

    “It’s actually more difficult to determine the gender of a skeleton from the Viking era,” says Harvig. “The men’s skulls were a little more feminine and the women’s skulls a little more masculine than what we’re seeing today.
    Viking women often had pronounced jawbones and eyebrows”

    Here some Viking beauty:


    This kind of makes it more complicated than simple man vs. women constant difference, as there are both some ancient traits, but also the levels of difference both between the sexes changed with time, as well as the level of masculinity/feminity within the sexes changed with time.

    • GTR, you need to get out more. There’s a real world outside of your basement. Check it out sometime.

    • @Gabriela – what is your definition of “a real world out there”?
      – is it about big things that happen – war in Syria, invasion on Crimea – politics?
      – is it about technological civilization – new inventions that change the world, buidling infrastructure, engeneering?
      – is “a real world” about physics – basic particles interacting, quantum fields, black holes swallowing everything?
      – or “a real world” is about about learing what a real wold is – information processing, reasoning?
      – is money “a real world” – or do you consider it to be a virtual entity? Has huge influence everywhere though? What about software, math equations other abstract stuff?

      • GTR, chances are you don’t consider your posted viewpoints as being racist and sexist, but I do. So do others. Mr. Heisenbug obviously is not watching the comments on his blog too closely because people like you, mini Breiviks, are all over the damn place.

        Your inferiority complex shows big time. Pull your pants up. Spare the rest of us.

      • And btw it’s two ‘l’s not one. At least I have the guts to post under my real name. Not some garbage initials behind which you, as a miniscule coward, are hiding.

      • @Gabriella – I don’t have any preexisting, fixed beliefs about races or sexes. I’m more of an intermediate proxy that that information flows through. I get some interesting information in one place and post it in the other place. No emotional attitude to it’s contents (no feeling of “Victory” if some race looks good/or bad in this information I pass). So you are lying that these are “my viewpoints”, basically trying to turn a general information flow about third-parties into an ad-hominem (a known fallacy by the way).


        I don’t want to turn it to personal attacks, so I’d keep things general. It is unfortunate, but some people have some ideological prejudices against some types of information – I’m talking about true information here. It’s like a mental diesease – they get attacks of negative emotions when they are exposed to such informations. For some muslims it can be a drawing of Mohammad or a text that suggest that some part of Koran is not factually correct – they get really angry when they see it, up to the point of being ready to physically attack the artist. Left wingers typically don’t see a problem with a drawing of a religious leader, but they have other emotional problems related to other ideology – so called political correctness. From the point of an objective observer such left-wingers get extremaly emotional – angry or shocked or touched etc. when they are provided with factual information that not all people are equal or that there are some measured differences in meaningful properties of some non-arbitrary groups.

        Now – how is that important to health? This is the question I ask, because of a doubt I have. The question is – is it viable to construct a diet for higher mental capabilities populations based on dietary patterns of lower mental capabilities populations? Do the differences related to higher-performing brain generate additional requirements compared to lower-performing ones (more DHA/EPA?, more antioxidants?, more glucose or maybe more ketones?, more cholesterol? – or a different framework like becoming fish eaters?). People buy special coffees, MCT oils, supplements, devices (think Dave Asprey) etc. to enhance their performance – so it looks like what you get into you matters.

        If so then it is a problem for paleo approaches based on emulating existing hunter-gatherers: as many remaining hunter-gatherer tribes are not measured to be in the high performance group – this includes Australian Aboriginals, San people. Those groups with higher IQ that remained hunter-gatherer tend to live in atypical places – like Inuit or Syberians- which makes their diets or microbiomes difficult to translate to what should be done in less extreme climates. Unfortunately the prime hunting places – close to the rivers – were also the prime places for agriculture – and we know who won.

        We don’t know a precise measure of IQ of Cro-Magnions, but at least we know they had – on average – the biggest brains in the whole history of humans (bigger than Neanderthals and since then the brains shrank by more than 10%). So at least there was something they did right. Skull comparisons below:

        We also know that Cro Magnions had this Cultural Revolution about 50k years ago, were artists, traders etc.

        So when Cao Cao explained that “Hadza for study, is that they are the closest proxy to an evolutionary diet we know of.” – I mentioned this intellectual performance aspect; basically suggesting that Hadza diet is not a proven solution for average or above modern levels of intellectual performance. Cro-Magnion diet reconstruciton (real paleo) might be, perhaps Native American one?

        When it comes to women vs. men – aren’t you yourself trying to prove that there are giant diffences by acting according to “women=think in emotions” stereotype, rather than trying to be more logical/analytical as I try?

      • Come on people, let’s keep things civilised here, and not descend into mud slinging matches!!
        Do I live in the real world, or in my own world which is real to me? Your real world can differ from mine, our real worlds can differ vastly from those in Africa or South America. Who’s to say that our real worlds are superior to theirs?
        We’ve got to keep things in perspective.

      • Europeans have different lipid metabolism and brain lipid concentrations than Asians or Africans, which are closer to those of chimps. The genes responsible seem to be of Neanderthal origin.

        “Although Neanderthals are extinct, fragments of their genomes persist in contemporary humans. Here we show that while the genome-wide frequency of Neanderthal-like sites is approximately constant across all contemporary out-of-Africa populations, genes involved in lipid catabolism contain more than threefold excess of such sites in contemporary humans of European descent. Evolutionally, these genes show significant association with signatures of recent positive selection in the contemporary European, but not Asian or African populations. Functionally, the excess of Neanderthal-like sites in lipid catabolism genes can be linked with a greater divergence of lipid concentrations and enzyme expression levels within this pathway, seen in contemporary Europeans, but not in the other populations. We conclude that sequence variants that evolved in Neanderthals may have given a selective advantage to anatomically modern humans that settled in the same geographical areas.”


  10. Gabriella Kadar says:
    Tatertot, maybe it’s because feces just stay in the gut for longer and there’s risk with longer exposure to breakdown products of gram negative bacteria.

    So it is very important that the tight junctions between the cells of the gut are functioning well, because otherwise the gut becomes ‘leaky’, which gives a higher risk for autoimmune diseases.
    Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria play a roll:
    Strain-dependent augmentation of tight-junction barrier function in human primary epidermal keratinocytes by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium lysates.
    Lactobacillus plantarum surface layer adhesive protein protects intestinal epithelial cells against tight junction injury induced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
    Effect of lactobacilli on paracellular permeability in the gut

    More RS and fermented food -> better barrier function.

  11. (off topic) Hi Mr H.
    Thanks for all your hard work on this blog. great stuff.

    Could i put forward a request for a future post…something along the line of…,
    Prebiotics and (the connection to/influence on…etc) Dreams.

    It would seem anecdotally that potato starch for example (esp in evening), has an effect on night time dreaming, ie, people starting to dream who were not dreaming before PS (or had no recollection of dreaming), or an increase in dreaming, or an increase in intensity or vividness of dreams.

    Could part of it be butyrate having an effect on the brain & effecting dreaming. & the variation between people is due to variations in brain chemistry between people…? (just thinking out loud).

    Personally, if i take PS in the evening, i will have vivid dreams. & for me personally these vivid dreams disturb my sleep & make my sleep worse, so i avoid taking any PS in the evening.

    I am currently trying to eliminate ‘things’ that cause these vivid dreams, i suspect they all related to my gut bacteria. Other things that seem to increase vivid dreams for me are Raw Honey and Kefir Yoghurt (shop bought). I’m sure there are other (many?) things as well, i am keeping a food diary to see if i can make any correlations.

    Much Appreciated (and looking forward to you posting on the topic, fingers crossed)

    • “Could part of it be butyrate having an effect on the brain & effecting dreaming. ” – RS is fermented into butyrate, propionate and acetate. First one mostly used in the gut, including helping the immune system, second mostly helps the liver, the third reaches the brain. There’s also a proces of producing extra glucose in the gut (intestinal gluconeogenesis).

    • another speculation…

      increased b6/p5p production…? anecdotally supplementing with b6 or p5p before bed or in the evening results in increased dream recall & more vivid (or strange/weird) dreams.

    • interesting,

      it would seem the something or things are being generated/excreted by our gut bacteria that influence dreams.

      other than the fatty acids (scfa’s) mentioned, i was just reading on wiki that,
      “Bacteria in the colon (large intestine) can also convert K1 into vitamin K2. In addition, bacteria typically lengthen the isopreneoid side chain of vitamin K2 to produce a range of vitamin K2 forms, most notably the MK-7 to MK-11 homologues of vitamin K2. All forms of K2 other than MK-4 can only be produced by bacteria, which use these forms in anaerobic respiration.”

  12. Slightly on topic… fiber made men hungrier? I’ve never found that in any of my research throughout the last couple of months but I’ve been extremely suspicious of this. EXTREMELY. Long story short… I haven’t been able to come to terms with that fact that when I eat vegetables (alone or with other foods) I get ravenously hungry. Its a strange but predictable effect… I eat a fiber heavy meal, feel satisfied for 15-30 minutes, get insanely hungry for an hour or longer and then slowly feel better and better for 3-6 hours before hunger returns. It’s obviously a massive second meal effect but it sucks not getting a first meal effect. No one ever talks about this! Maybe things are different physiologically for a 26 year old guy. I can’t imagine that many guys my age try to eat a lot vegetables with every single meal.
    I’ve speculated that fiber caused my grehlin levels to increase drastically for the immediate postprandial period. I think this because of my research on grehlin… it causes hunger but also has therapeutic effects and can increase energy and sociability. After I eat a high fiber meal I feel all hungry and edgy. My social anxiety goes away because I generally stop caring what people think. After that hour or so I start to calm down and feel a lot better. There are some pretty potent things going on inside of me and it’s significant enough to make me search like crazy for an answer. The only thing I could find was a paltry study that looked at fiber’s effects on satiation hormones by feeding people muffins with different levels of fiber. The muffin with the most fiber did in fact raise grehlin quite a bit immediately after consumption but then grehlin was suppressed for longer with the highest fiber muffin compared to the other ones (thats what I remember from the study anyway… read this a long time ago).

    And as to the transit time thing as others been discussing… I don’t remember where I read it (maybe it was even a youtube lecture) but I remember learning that transit time can vary drastically for different foods. Certain foods will literally pass other foods in the colon and exit the body. You might haven eaten a huge vegetable lasagna yesterday for dinner and had some popcorn at the movies before dinner today. That popcorn fiber might literally pass the lasagna and be in your poop by morning before the lasagna is half way through the colon.

    • @IFEELFIVEPOUNDSLIGHTER – “when I eat vegetables (alone or with other foods) I get ravenously hungry. Its a strange but predictable effect…” – does this depend on the way of prepariation of vegetables – eg. stir frying at very high temperatures but in a short time vs. steaming vs. boiling vs. raw, vs. slow cooking at low temperatures etc.?

      • Cooking technique does matter a bit. Raw vegetables are the worst and of course provide the biggest “second meal effect” which is nice when I finally get to it. I can never cook high fiber vegetables to the point where I don’t get hungry after the meal though. My only option is to have a very very small amount of the vegetables. LIke 50 cal worth of broccoli for example which is just one serving. Three of those a day and I’m not even at FDA recommendations lol

        I guess this whole thing confuses me because if I eat other low gi foods… like fat (nuts, coconut flakes, flax, cream cheese which I eat with a spoon on occasion)… I don’t get hungry after consumption. I don’t feel full either. What I get is the feeling that I didn’t eat anything. No better or worse off than I felt before I started eating. I feel the same and I have smooth consistent energy until my next meal. I would have expected this from vegetables too.

        It would make sense to think… ok I’m starving… eat a large meal with vegetables… my body thinks wow it will take forever to get the nutrients out… we need energy now! Eat cake! So ok I’ll eat a meal when I’m not hungry. Well guess what… the meal makes me feel like I’m starving when I didn’t feel that way before the meal. Interestingly I don’t have this issue with everyone’s dream prebiotics… potato starch or resistant corn starch =)

  13. Might be an issue of physical activity level: more excercise = shorter transit times.


    “Song et al11 in the present study investigated CTT according to physical activity level (PAL). The total CTT was significantly longer in female (25.8 hours) than male (7.4 hours) subjects. With regard to the dependence of the inter-group difference on PAL, the right CTT in female subjects was significantly shorter in the high PA group than in the moderate PA group, while there was no significant difference among male subjects. The recto-sigmoid CTT was significantly shorter in the high PA group than in the low PA group. Furthermore, there were significant differences in the total CTT between the low and moderate PA groups, and between the low and high groups of female subjects.”

    In the study you cited – children had 33h hours transit time, men had 33 hours transit time = no change from childhood. Now – at which age things change for women, and why? Is the reason hormonal, showing after puberty, or lifestyle – too little excercise, eating lots of sweets (women tend to like sweets more than men) etc.

    And what is the optimal transit – should we have longer time for better utilization of fiber, or shorter, for more protection from pathogens.

    • According to this article the optimal transit time is 24 hours, and


      “The entire process ranges from about 12 to 48 hours for most people. What’s the ideal time from food to feces? Less than 24 hours, says Robynne Chutkan, M.D., medical director of the Digestive Center for Women in Washington, D.C., and a member of the LHJ Medical Advisory Board. “Faster is healthier because in general, nutrient-rich high-fiber foods move through the gastrointestinal tract more easily.” Want to check your transit time? Eat some fresh corn and notice when the kernels come out. “Ideally, it’s the next morning,” says Dr. Chutkan. To pick up the pace, think fiber: In one study, a high-fiber diet lowered transit time through the gut from 48 hours to 12.”

      • I would be very wary of “standard” advice in this area. There is no good reference range/point when we’re talking about Western guts. Many of the same people regard “3 times a week” as a perfectly normal frequency. It’s just not reliable.

  14. I’m not sure, I ran thru the comments pretty quickly, but what about babies? Do Hadza babies show the same difference in transit time between the sexes? Or is this something that develops as food choices become individualized based on their culture? And if it is something happens from birth, what adaption or advantage for the Hadza women is slower transit time fulfilling? In the study, GTR, cited, physical activity was linked to these issues. Surely, the Hadza women and girls are as active as the boys and men?

  15. To Sally,

    I was thinking that the men would be more active with having to hunt for food but after a bit of searching I came across this study… http://www.unl.edu/rhames/courses/current/hawkes-grandma1.pdf

    It would in fact seem from a quick skim of the article that activity levels are very similar. There is quite a difference between age levels of the men and women though. Older = more likely to forage/ hunt. Younger = more likely to take care of “home.”

    • One of the doctors at work today suggested progesterone as a possible factor. But I countered that menopausal women are just as, or more, constipated than younger women. (That could also be lower thyroid hormone levels). Maybe it’s higher testosterone in men. Do eunuchs have slow transit time?
      Is there a difference in transit time between pre-pubertal girls and boys?

  16. Maybe if we pool our observations, we may end up helping many.
    If we start with a human frame of reference, and look at the microbiota ecology later, the process is described as the Gastrocolic Reflex. Babies do it pretty consistently well after eating. In humans it is too slow , too fast, or not at the ” right time”.
    Wiki’s short post is http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastrocolic_reflex
    This medical lecture slide notes are a good starting point to work from http://www.slideshare.net/fitiwi/gastro-intestinal-reflexes
    Over to you Grace!

  17. I my self…. ended up with crohns disease.. I took a different approach as this runs in my family as well type 2 diabetes.. I find all this studies interesting and observe what many people say on many forums , studies medical etc.. I decided to document my life in testing and eating from the day I got sick…I heard it all from the docs your going to die , you need the meds etc.. I began my research.. I looked into bacteria like you all are saying here…I was sick.. crohns or colitis I had both.. (THEY SAY is caused by immune system problems and bacteria) I didnt see it that way…. from my two years of spending thousands on tests…screwing my insurance and getting tests ran. I did advanced tests… regular tests… tests docs dont know about….i did american gut read everything….The words are starch well for me I did see it that way………….. when I looked at disease. ….auto immune diseases…everyone usually has ASCA high – yeast. yet no one treats for this.. A doc will laugh in your face… when you say the words… many with crohns have a high ASCA or AMCA. For me it was AMCA and ALCA AMCA — can be candida. ALCA is sugars… the Hadza when you look eat certain foods and certain things are fall back foods. I looked at every diet gaps, primal , SCD.. Paleo. candida, ETC to me it boils down to sugar…. Sugar is digested as milk, grains, starches . For me i did nothing what docs told me …Im healed and I say cured. I did the america gut project Genus Bacteroides 37.3% Genus Serratia 3.8% 0.19% 20x
    Genus Parabacteroides 20.1% Family 0319-6G20 0.1% 0.00% 43x
    Genus Akkermansia 13.2% Genus Bilophila 0.6% 0.17% 4x
    Genus Serratia 3.8% Family Alteromonadaceae 0.0% 0.00% 10x
    I eat now LOW starch veggies , eggs, nuts(almonds walnuts pumpkin seeds, some berries, chicken , meat, duck fish… almost zero sugar…. tiny honey here and there tiny bit of berries…. rare grapefruit… but my diet is mainly tons of veggies and meat.s What happen to me was nuts… my system went crazy .. flushing etc then leveled off.. I did many tests studies …advanced tests.. above is bacteria from 6 months ago…. Today its been two years eating this way… I now have no migraines… no stomach distress , no sleeping problems.. no more snoring no more sinus issues no hemorrhoids its like i rebuilt my self..and I know i did I used several tests… what I found AMCA is candida a yeast/fungus… NO doc looks at this.. ALCA was sugars… yeast eat sugars.. when your yeast is high.. your balance is off.. and your good bacteria can not live and produce the good fatty chain acids.. what then keep the bad bacteria down and yeast down… You can see if in my testing…nothing a hospital wold see,,, or local lab… when I started my experiment I my yeast toxins were high…same with bacteria in my urine (OAT test )http://www.greatplainslaboratory.com/home/eng/full_oat.asp.. look at the sample reports they have what they do… then I did there comp stool http://www.greatplainslaboratory.com/home/eng/stool.asp at the start my good bacteria was low… yeast high…. switching my diet to foods similar to this study other them starch and useing things to kill lower yeast… eating prebotic foods taking probiotics and eating diet raised the bar… My bacteria is nothing what you talk about …. at the same time when I lowered my yeast i started to produce fatty chain acids… i think all the sugar milk grains we eat , allow yeast to get pathogenic causes disease… yeasts change bakers brewers ,,,, or candida… then changing you PH allowing bad bacteria and yeast go grow… these bad yeasts root in..allow bacteria and food proteins in… which I ended up with all kinds of intolerances i dont have now.. When you look at the Hadza I see it different…. they eat some starch… but im sure a good natural source.. and not too much same with the sugar from the honey…. I think im a prime example … bread also has been eaten for thousands of years alot of it was flat bread… today we use commercial yeast. in beer breads etc.. when people use to make loaf bread up until the 50’s it was a 3 to 4 hr process the starter fermented the sugars etc to make it rise.. today pop you make it 30 min start to finish… people cry GMO … they made the plant stronger , for heat, rain..BUT the key i found to resist fungus… the top crops everyone eat
    CORN, GRAINS SOy…you store them in a big silo growing fungus on them…I maybe off but sure see if from my testing of two years on my self …I lost all my docs. and today im great… you read on any forum , candida, crohns, colitis , arthriuts etc.. they have many symptoms…joint pain, migraines, stomach etc.. could be wrong……I think the american gut project is on to something and the HADZA diet but they need to look at yeast and bacteria at the same time…NO one say the word yeast you ll be laughed at…

  18. an example of one study I did on my self…. AMCA is high is is ALCA at the start… doc rarely use this IBD EXPNADED PANEL test…. for crohns IBs or colitis they jump right into a colonoscopy or endo I have never seem this test used more than one time…..this is my own experiment…

    IBD expanded PANEL STUDY PALEO eating/low sugar killing CANDIDA fungus with antifungals
    March 2012

    ALCA 64 0-60 POSITIVE “negative less 45, Equivocal 45-50, Positive over 60”
    AMCA 204 0-100 POSITIVE “negative less 90, Equivocal 90-100, Positive over 100”
    gASCA 13 0-50 Negative
    ACCA 58 0-90 Negative
    pANCA tieter
    ___________________________________________________________________Oct 2012
    ALCA 40 0-60 Negative
    AMCA 184 0-100 POISITVE “negative less 90, Equivocal 90-100, Positive over 100”
    gASCA 14 0-50 Negative
    ACCA 23 0-90 Negative
    pANCA Negative
    Feb 2013
    ALCA 36 0-60 Negative
    AMCA 99 0-100 EQUIVOCAL “negative less 90 , Equivocal 90-100, Positive over 100”
    gASCA 21 0-50 Negative
    ACCA 16 0-90 Negative
    pANCA Negative
    ALCA 35 0-60 Negative
    AMCA 74 0-100 Negative
    gASCA 13 0-50 Negative
    ACCA 16 0-90 Negative
    pANCA Negative
    Sept 2013 NEGATIVE FOR ALL
    ALCA 23 0-60 Negative
    AMCA 58 0-100 Negative
    gASCA 11 0-50 Negative
    ACCA 18 0-90 Negative
    pANCA Negative
    ALCA 37 0-60 Negative
    AMCA 74 0-100 Negative
    gASCA 11 0-50 Negative
    ACCA 16 0-90 Negative
    pANCA Negative

  19. as you see Im negative to all now?????? i m waiting for another current one to come back for this year I have many other studies i did documenting my start from 2 years ago to today

    • Hi Eddie, all very interesting, thanks for posting your information and results. I too have done all your types of testing, but now need to go over to look again with your insight. What does ALCA stand for and the AMCA? I gave up all fruits, starchy vegetables and grains for a while too, trying to find answers for my autoimmune disease. But I lost too much weight while I was trying to gain weight. It has only been since December that I have been eating some starchy vegies after reading about what good prebiotic foods they are and started probiotics supplements daily rather than dabbing once in a while. My Sed Rate and CRP finally came down to normal, it has not been normal for 10 years. I realized some starch is good, so trying some rice once in a while and white potatoes etc. I am now on a similar diet as you stated, but i do eat some legumes, occasional grain and fermented raw milk yogurt, plus all the other foods you mentioned, oh and a little bit of fruit. I can’t seem to eat much meat or my liver acts up, so I lean on soaked and slowly cooked legumes of all kinds, the yogurt, eggs and nuts. I have been 92 lbs for years unable to gain weight and now finally I have gained 4 lbs. hurray

  20. Eddie, I think you are not English. Did you use Google to translate from your native language. That would explain why there are some strange sentences in your post. I’m sorry I don’t understand what ASCA and AMCA are. What would the normal range be, so that I can see where yours fit in.

    Did you get your gut flora analysed? Where did you have it done?

    • antichitobioside carbohydrate antibody (ACCA), antilaminaribioside carbohydrate antibodies (ALCA), and antimannobioside carbohydrate antibodies (AMCA).

      I found these in a paper on Chrohns.

  21. Man sorry all…my first post was from a cell phone(tiny finger typing)…the long post with my results a a PC… “caessence” I could tell you a lot.. here is a basic (explanation on the antibodies) above what I was talking about


    Now AMCA = candida yeast I researched all of these and can tell you what foods fall under each antibody. When people have IBS they have one of the antibodies listed in the google book link .. 99 percent of all gastro docs are CLOWN’s from what Ive learned ,researched and read.. they know what list of meds to give you and how to do a endoscopy or colonoscopy. There good at repairs . That is it, you will never get any answers.
    FOR ME when I was sick – AMCA and ALCA were high look above at the link

    after you read them look here
    LABCORP has a test called(IBD EXPANDED PANEL) tests
    alca, alca, acca, amca
    ALCA– these all fall under alca
    Maltose —-digestion of starch by amylase; is converted to glucose by maltase. “malted” is very high in the type of starches that an enzyme called diastase (found naturally on the surface of the grain) maltose corn syrup , Malt sugar- process of bringing grain to the point of its highest possible starch content two glucose residues, the fundamental structural unit of glycogen and starch
    Lactose—- disaccharide sugar that is found most notably in milk
    Trehalose— disaccharide —mushroom sugar found in such microorganisms as
    baker’s yeast and wine yeast sunflower seeds
    Streptococcus mutans, the common oral bacterium responsible for dental plaque.
    turnanose —
    celliose — It is the main component of plant cell walls
    Cotton is the purest natural form of cellulose
    ————————————————————————————————— AMCA—–mannobioside
    pathogenic fungi, particularly Candida species
    Candida antibodies and fungal colonization
    Mannobiose is a disaccharide. It is formed by a condensation reaction, when two mannose molecules react together While much of the mannose used in glycosylation is believed to be derived from glucose, digestion of many polysaccharides and glycoproteins yields mannose
    phosphorylated by hexokinase to generate mannose-6-
    ASCA IgA /IgG—-Saccharomyces cerevisiae”sugar mold” or sugar fungus

    wild yeast found on plants, fruits, and grains that is occasionally used for baking; Budding yeast Baker’s yeast–leavening agent in baking bread converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough Brewer’s yeast,top-fermenting yeast —Top-fermenting yeasts are used for brewing ales, porters, stouts, Altbier, Kölsch, and wheat beers. Bottom fermenting yeasts— lager yeasts grow less rapidly than ale yeast with less surface foam they tend to settle out to the bottom
    bottom yeasts are Pilsners, Dortmunders, Märzen, Bocks, American malt liquors.

    Glucosamine— amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. less commonly by fermentation present in the shells of shellfish, animal bones and bone marrow. It is also present in some fungi, such as Aspergillus niger of a grain such as corn or wheat a major component of joint cartilage,
    Chitin— It is the main component of the cell walls of fungi,In the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans( crab shirmp etc) Chitin is a modified polysaccharide that contains nitrogen;
    Lysozyme—Large amounts of lysozyme can be found in egg white
    lysozyme is a natural form of protection from gram-positive pathogens like Bacillus and Streptococcus, The enzyme functions by attacking peptidoglycans
    (found in the cell walls of bacteria) without it conjunctivitis forms

    Now this is one set of tests a GOOD GI i will give above(they never do)….. almost everyone is reactive in any autoimmune disease for ASCA —bakers brewers yeast
    yet we do not treat for it. (anti fungal drugs) the craze is bacteria for everything..

    CROHNS – alot are reactive to ASCA or AMCA (antibodies) or two or three antibodies . I didnt go the medicine route…I m an engineer and said there has to be a cause.(i like to dig in). FOR me it was AMCA which is candida and ALCA – sugar which feeds the candida.(sugars are– starches grain milk etc look above ) My thought was if Im reactive to it…..then I must be over ran with it. . Yeast and bacteria live in your gut from my research and you basically should be 80 percent good and bad bacteria and 20 percent yeast. Once yeast grow out of control and pathogenic. They root in and cause problems. To me they do this then get into your blood stream along with bacteria following behind. Then food proteins get in giving you the intolerances . There is a difference with an instant allergy and a intolerance/ different antibody allergy . Your allergy office tests IgE instant allergies with a prick test.. Or a caprast when they mail the blood in. Its still the same antibody. Almost all auto immune disease people go and get tested and then are tossed under a buss as there reactive to nothing. ( this happen to me)You can have a reaction up to three days later. There is better advanced testing available. http://www.elisaact.com/nonhc/our-unique-testing-method.asp testing IGG IGA IGM tcell and immune complex all at the same time. I was told make food journal at the allergy office as i reacted to nothing.. Here I reacted to some sugars and starches – potatoes, milk, butter, yogurt, buckwheat, apple and collard greens. (eating these really helped to make my disease worse) I removed the food source for my CANDIDA. in my blood. I then found that you can have reactions in the BLOOD (different types of antibodies) (again the allergy office tests just one)and in the gut. There is fecal testing of Ige.as well.. what I tested for negative in BLOOD Ige standard allergy testing I tested positive in my gut… http://www.enterolab.com I reacted to corn, rice, wheat, gluten, milk soy etc. All food for my Candida/yeast/fungus. I removed them all ..I ate the diet like above I said. everything started to clear up and go away. stomach problems , sinus , headaches etc. I also did the test i talked about in my other post.. http://www.greatplainslaboratory.com/home/ the OAT test and comp stool. this showed my gut bacteria low and yeast high… once I got them under control. Killing yeast my good bacteria rose, all shown in other testing. ( i documented my life for 2 years..I have not seen anyone do this- So i did, thinking to write a book about it.

    I dont buy the starch thing and this is why… I rarely eat any sugars( grains, milk starch sugar) right now for almost two years I havent eaten it. Yet im healed. If this doesnt point to sugar I dont know. –But what I think it points to is the destruction of health from sugars and yeast/fungus then bacteria.

    If your over ran by yeast / fungus any type– you out number your bacteria. When this happens your PH also changes acid reflux,stomach problems, the shits, allowing bad bacteria to grow and yeast to get out of hand. With out good bacteria which was my case I didnt produce fatty chain acids that digest fiber. Which produce everything to protect you. Today my fatty chain acids are good health is good …No yeast as you see from my post above(plus I have other tests).. My diet doesnt match perfect the tribe and my bacteria are not this starch eating kind I hear??? . I dont see the hype for me. Maybe now that I fixed that issue , I can try to introduce some starch to grow more strains of different bacteria which may also help me.

    My last note as well….. The Gluten protein in my research looks almost the same as the candida protein and its documented. When your immune system has crashed it cant tell the difference. When I was a mess… I couldn’t even thing to eat gluten , bread etc. I also genetic tested myself in the HLA DQ gene area. I have 4 genes for gluten and two for type 2 diabetes. you can also test HAL DR AND HLA DP..I HAVENT I tested every celiac doctors test and came up negative. Yet my stomach hurt eating gluten. Crohns and Type 2 run in my family tree. Some how I got crohns, Its gone now and I think I sure know why I got it.

    Today many of the intolerances I had are gone.. and I will be re testing to prove this
    I can now eat the cake, ice cream sugars, beer , etc but choose not to.. At a party I now in then eat it., but I never have any problems.

    I have no idea how to give my data to… but I think it could be useful in the right hands…

  22. I always weighed 170 to 176 5’9 Im 41 years old.. always pretty fit. when I got sick I went from 174 to 132 pds it was bad.. I went to the hospital at 164pds.. all they did was give me antibiotics. They never found anything as well nothing cultured out. They saw inflammation in my endoscopy top end and lower rectum. after 2 weeks of them pretty much killing me throwing antibiotics at a dart board. I walked out. I began my research and haven’t looked back… I find all of these forums interesting , as well jimmy moores experiment on eating fat and cholesterol
    I also documented my cholesterol throughout this ordeal. When I was sick its was a total of around 157 . Now that Im healthy im 227 total. But I had many NMR lipo profiles done. I have LOW bad LDL particles 135 and over 1300 total LDL particles
    size is good I think you need the fat/ meat . look at jimmys tests http://livinlavidalowcarb.com/blog/liposciences-nmr-lipoprofile-test-a-revolutionary-more-accurate-lipid-profile-particle-size-screening/6522

    and johns hopkins link http://www.johnshopkinshealthalerts.com/reports/heart_health/1886-1.html

    today I weigh 150 lean muscle– 5’9 great health

      • it wasnt just the antifungals… you can kill all the yeast you want … if you dont put bacteria to fill in the void you ll get no where. I ate coconut oil. caplyric acid. rotated olive leaf extract, grapefruit seed extract. Diet was key— dropping anything it ate… SUGARS , GRAINS STARCHES, FRUITS MILK ,MUSHROOMS — and soy.. as well finding my intolerances to give my gut time to heal. I also played with nystatin in the gut and Diflucan in the blood
        if you want to get to the bottom I suggest you do these two tests….OAT and CoMP stool great plans lab. the urine test (OAT) will tell you what toxins are released in the urine from bacteria and yeast the stool test will tell you what bacteria your low in … It will tell you if you have yeast overgrowth, parasites and bad bacteria . this lab tells you what will kill what you have ——natural products or meds.

        To figure out your intolerances in the blood dont waste a DIME—at the standardard allergy office.. this is so outdated.!!!!! its an instant allergy test. I will bet you money , all your intolerances that come back in both blood and fecal testing will be foods that feed yeast….
        BLOOD– all tested at the same time IGG IGA IGM TCELL and IMMUNE COMPLEX

        to see whats reactive in fecal gut IgA– http://www.enterolab.com

        I did all these and CURED myself….they pointed at what not to eat , what gave me intolerances , what was over ran , what I was low in. the best money ever spent.

        ****I realized the GI was a guy wearing a clown suit with tools in one hand and candy pills in the other .**** it doesnt fix whats wrong

    • And a certain clostridium is accused of being invlolved with MS


      “Research published in 2014 suggested that a strain of C. perfringens might be implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS). Tests in mice found that a toxin made by a rare strain of C. perfringens caused MS-like damage in the brain, and earlier work had identified this strain of C. perfringens in a human with MS.[5] MS patients were found to be ten times more immune-reactive to the epsilon toxin than healthy people.[6]”

      It’s present in meat that was prepared in insufficient temperatures (often present in sous vide), but also is consciously added to the bread dough by bakers:

      “Despite its potential dangers, C. perfringens is used as the leavening agent in salt rising bread.”

      Temperatures are here:


    • @Eddie

      I have a story similar to yours. Lactose, sugars and starches are absolutely the favorite fuel for yeast/fungas. I was bed-ridden and ready to give up after a round of powerful antibiotics and eating ice cream because my tummy hurt. Antifungals and a diet like yours brought me back. I feel great on my diet of meat ,eggs,fish, veges, berries, nuts and greens. I do not feel starch is a absolute requirement for good over all health for everyone. Being of Cuban descent on my moms side I ate plenty of starch/rs. I was definitely heavier…. but healthier? No desire for me to mess with what works.

      • that is great!!!!! just how i feel… I dont know if I have a defect on the sugar/ strach thing… or the fact the yeast eat all this… if your over ran bacteria cant eat it.. today I feel great LOW starch veggies tons of them…..berries meat eggs duck live chicken … today no sinus nasal drip no allergies ..headaches nothing no crohns ibs etc ————————-perfect ..

    • look in to YEAST and Clostrida the guy at greatplans lab points to this.. i used there lab OAT test and COMP stool my yeast out the roof… high Clostrida types and low good bacteria. the guy once ran worked at the FDA and tried to point this out… I found for my immune disease the same case… after I fixed all this ..no brain fog , good gut etc check out the lab http://www.greatplainslaboratory.com/home/eng/stool.asp read the bio on this guy…. also look at the OAT test.. its interesting

      • @Eddie

        I never did another follow up gut bacteria test. Just going by symptoms all is well. The sugar from berries is well tolerated but not starch. Lactose is the worst. I believe when you have had small bowel inflammation you lose the lactase enzyme. I did not have crohns but was told the inflammation I had in my upper small intestine looked like someone with crohns. In my opinion a side effect is reduced Peristalsis from the inflammation so 2 meals a day and a walk after each helps me keep the digestion moving and prevents fermentation in the upper gut. That is also why I avoid probiotics as they tend to settle in my upper gut and cause more inflammation. I never believed in “Candida” till it happened to me. So glad to here from somebody else that made it out the other side. It can feel very hopeless.

  23. @BEA if you have the money …….TEST TEST TEST this …..great plans lab OAT test and COMP stool test. http://www.greatplainslaboratory.com/home/eng/stool.asp look at the samples … Its the best money spent( 645.00) if your insurance does not cover any of it..they may cover half… Even thou you feel good you may still be over ran with yeast or a bad bacteria these two tests will help a great deal.. to form a plan….L@@K at the sample reports. I will tell you , you have to dig and look at the probiotics. Many have many things in them including milk etc , rice etc that could be bugging you or feeding yeast . Just because its a probiotic doenst mean its good for you( whats in it). You say it bugs you on the top end. it may bug you as its feeding your problem. I found RENEW life 50 billion good as it is free of all stuff….some of there other options are not that they have. When you took a probiotic did it have 7 to 10 strains??? or was it a one strain or 3 strain one…. what brand what was in it..

    When the lab great plans looked over all my reports (I had tested two times in a year in a half).. ll give you an example… Right now my yeast is corrected for the most part. but my markers for pathnogenic clostrida strains are still a little high
    They told me the probiotic i use is good …..BUT I needed more lactobacillus GG as it will eat away at the clostrida strains. A year ago I added this in the mix as well… with in a couple days I was in a world of hurt…. FLARE- diarrhea for over a week.. i thought what did i do… i quickly stopped… my tummy was a mess. months later when i re ran the test , talking with the lab they said oh boy that was normal..and hit the strains good… but most likely the strain was to high a dose for me.. months later i used another brand with one third the amount and no problems.. Im sure its eating away at it.. ill be re testing again in 6 months…
    As well look to join the american gut project (99.00) they do an RNA scan of your bacteria and tell you what is in you….this helped me to plan my attack to change and swing my bacteria( rebuild my gut) – today NO problems I had crohns and its GONE bye bye,,, check out the study its cool there also looking at the hazda tribe to get answers

    • Thank you for all the information! I really should do another test. At the very least the Americangut test. The TMI these days is perfect and the tenderness in my upper gut is improving daily. I did use the LactoGG before. My body is just so sensitive. For every action I have a reaction. When I felt real sick I got IV infusions from a Wellness center. Took supplements. Never saw improvements. I’ve recently thrown thousands of dollars in supplements away. I think my body is so happy to be left alone. Good healthy simple food has been my best medicine (after the liquid nystatin did its thing) and time. I don’t find my diet restrictive at all. In fact I find it quite freeing because of the simplicity. In a way I’m grateful for what I went through as i no longer use food for entertainment but for fuel and nutrients to give me the energy to live life. Hope your having as much fun these days too!

  24. Referring to my bag of powdered psyllium husk (Frontier brand–1 lb.), i see it contains 1 net gram per 2 tsp., meaning this stuff has carbs when used in quantity. Could the same be for the Hazda women’s fruit preference over meat? Puting that tidbit together with the fact that women in general do less well on VLC and ZC diets, I’d be inclined to think it was the small carb extraction, rather than the additional fiber, these women were after. That said, I am no doctor, and have no studies to cite–this is just my non-fiber-fueled gut reaction (so to speak).

    The bread recipe I use regularly from Maria Mind & Body calls for 1/2 cup of psyllium. In teaspoon terms, that’s equivalent to 24 teaspoons, and 12 net grams of fiber for the whole batch of dough. I get 6 bread rolls out of a batch, so that makes about 2 net grams per roll.

    This recipe is the only reason I buy psyllium–it’s the only bread recipe I can get to rise without resorting to yeast.

    • Regardless of why, they are still getting a ton more fiber, which has an impact on their microbiota. And in fact, the latest Hadza microbiome showed just that — women had more fiber degrading bacteria than men.

  25. With latest developments in research on 3D textile structures using piezoelectric energy harvesting fibres their are amazing results of the project could lead to the development of energy-harnessing carpets or mobile devices that can be charged as your clothes move. One of the researchers leading the project explains why fabrics could soon hold the power and what commercial partner FibrLec has planned.

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